Author Archives: Rudy Amid

Automatically Renew SSL Cert with LetsEncrypt and getssl

Let's Encrypt Logo

With the recent federal government shutdown, it’s quite apparent their IT administrators still renew SSL certificates manually since many government websites went offline after the certs expired. Politics aside, since having secured connection and valid certificates are important these days, it should be a point for administrators to start automating the process. At the very least, have a project or plan in place to anticipate the shutdown and go through all of the important websites for possible cert renewals, 1-2 months in advance. As an Enterprise administrator, it’s also essential to have alerts or calendar reminders to renew an expiring cert. However, the best solution is to setup an automated job.

This is where tools out there like getssl and certbot can help. For this website, getssl is used to automate the SSL renewal process. The key processes are as follows:

Ensure Apache web server is setup. Since getssl relies on obtaining the proper “ACME” code from the target website to confirm the correct URL host, a regular port 80 HTTP connection must be made available first.

Per getssl documentation, run the inital setup to create the proper folders and files in $HOME/.getssl

getssl -c

Edit the getssl.cfg in $HOME/.getssl/ folder with the correct directory for Apache web server’s doc-root and configuration files. Note, package installed Apache HTTPD uses /etc/apache2 as the default config directory.

When getssl is all setup, create a crontab to run getssl twice every month, for timely renewal (within 30 days). Be sure to restart Apache HTTPD to make sure the web server reloads the latest cert files.

0 9 1,15 * * $HOME/getssl/getssl -u -a > $HOME/getssl/getssl.out.txt 2>&1

Installing Elasticsearch Client on PHP

For a simple demonstration of using Elasticsearch programmatically as a web app, it’s a little more practical to use PHP as a starting point to learn how to connect and display search results. As a guideline, the quick-start instruction from Elastic site is a starting point. To expand (possibly complete) the out of the box setup, below are the steps to setup PHP to enable Elasticsearch support.

First, install the PHP Curl support for Apache on Linux:

apt-get -y install php-curl

Setup the PHP Composer in the doc-root folder, as outlined from elasticsearch-php github. Setup the php libraries via Composer:

php composer.phar init
curl -s | php
php composer.phar install --no-dev

Be sure to get the dependency package “elasticsearch/elasticsearch” and use the latest version as default. Note, skip the development package as it’s not really necessary.

Then, edit the composer.json file to include the directive:

   "require": {
            "elasticsearch/elasticsearch": "~6.0"

Finally, create a test page to see if it can connect to the Elasticsearch server:


require 'vendor/autoload.php';

use Elasticsearch\ClientBuilder;

$hosts = [

$client = ClientBuilder::create()

$params = [
    'index' => 'myindexname',
    'body' => [
        'query' => [
            'match' => [
                'post_title' => 'elasticsearch'

$response = $client->search($params);

$totalhits = $response['hits']['total'];
echo "We have $totalhits total hits\n";

echo "<P>The hits are the following:</P>";
$result = null;
while ($i <= $totalhits)
        $result[$i] = $response['hits']['hits'][$i]['_source'];

foreach ($result as $key => $value)
        echo $value['post_title'], "<br>";


Output will look something like this:

We have 2 total hits

The hits are the following:

Using Elasticsearch for JBOSS Logs
Deleting Entries in Elasticsearch Based On Timestamp

Update Nov/2019: Since Elasticsearch updated their basic license to include basic username/password security, it’s advisable to set them up. It’s a straight-forward addition:

$hosts = [
      'host' => 'myelasticsearchhost',
      'port' => '9200',
      'scheme' => 'http',
      'user' => 'myElasticUser',
      'pass' => 'myPassword'

Recovering Kibana After Upgrade


Elastic is doing rapid development with Elasticsearch. As of this writing, they’re now on version 6.5.3 – when 6.5.2 was released less than 2 weeks ago!  Luckily, with a package install from repo (such as RPM on CentOS/RHEL), the upgrade process to minor versions is less painful.  However, it’s not without its pitfall. For example, an  upgrade from version 6.4.x to the latest 6.5.x could lead to Kibana not able to start due to incompatible indices.

In order to alleviate this, shutdown the Kibana service, and instruct Elasticsearch to perform a recovery on the .kibana index:

curl --user elasticuser:userpassword -s

If it’s connected to a big cluster with a lot of shards, speed up the recovery process without using replicas:

curl --user elasticuser:userpassword -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -XPUT '' -d '{ "index" : { "number_of_replicas" : 0 } }'

Give it a few minutes (depending how much data is there) and then start up Kibana service.  If, for some reason, it still takes a long time, there may be a problem with the migration process.  The kibana.log may indicate something like this:

{“type”:”log”,”@timestamp”:”2018-12-12T17:17:40Z”,”tags”:[“warning”,”stats-collection”],”pid”:15141,”message”:”Unable to fetch data from kibana_settings collector”}
{“type”:”log”,”@timestamp”:”2018-12-12T17:17:42Z”,”tags”:[“reporting”,”warning”],”pid”:15141,”message”:”Enabling the Chromium sandbox provides an additional layer of protection.”}
{“type”:”log”,”@timestamp”:”2018-12-12T17:17:42Z”,”tags”:[“info”,”migrations”],”pid”:15141,”message”:”Creating index .kibana_2.”}
{“type”:”log”,”@timestamp”:”2018-12-12T17:17:44Z”,”tags”:[“warning”,”migrations”],”pid”:15141,”message”:”Another Kibana instance appears to be migrating the index. Waiting for that migration to complete. If no other Kibana instance is attempting migrations, you can get past this message by deleting index .kibana_2 and restarting Kibana.”}

Shutdown Kibana again, and delete the .kibana_2 index:

curl --user elasticuser:userpassword -XDELETE

Start the Kibana service again and give it a few more minutes to perform house-keeping.  Kibana should be up and running now.