Heartbleed: A Scrambled Egg with Lots of Ham

CVE-2014-0160The sensational headline news this week was “Heartbleed” security flaw, which was covered by most mainstream and tech sites.  It was an old bug that was accidentally introduced, and just discovered recently1. The report got IT professionals scrambling to fix their systems.

At first glance, the bug is benign enough, with chances of hacking the passwords or SSL keys rather slim. However, like any other hacking issues, if someone is determined (and clever) enough to exploit this bug, they may just get a bunch of useful data. Whether or not they can use the hacked data to steal client information, or use it for a phishing site, it’s unclear. Just the thought of the potential leak scares the daylights out of everyone! It’s also proof that the marketing behind this bug was very effective.

Regardless, the actions need to be taken are as follows:

  1. Check with Qualys SSL Analyzer to determine if your site is vulnerable.
  2. If vulnerable, upgrade OpenSSL to version 1.0.1g, or alternatively recompile OpenSSL without the “heartbeat” option (-DOPENSSL_NO_HEARTBEATS).
  3. Recompile or restart the web server to reload the latest OpenSSL libraries.
  4. Test the site(s) with the Qualys SSL Analyzer again.  Also check if site is functional.
  5. With the new OpenSSL, generate a new SSL key, and re-key a new certificate.  Install the new key/certificate in the web server(s).
  6. Urge the users to change their passwords – which they occasionally have to do, anyway.  This step is tricky considering the PR scare that it’s going to generate when admitting the site is vulnerable.  However, the notification is the responsible thing to do.

When the dust settles, we can look back and use this as an important reminder how fragile the Internet is.  Customers are expected to be cautious of their data being transmitted over the Internet, no matter how secure a company claim they’re being kept.

  1. Introduced in 2011 and found out in February 2014 []

SSL From Java Client

java_sslI’ve described a way to install a self-signing SSL certificate using OpenSSL for testing purposes.  When connecting to a web server using a web browser client, it is straight forward to add the “fake” certificate (just follow the instructions on the browser screen).  However, in a Java application, it’s a little bit more work.

The procedure is the following:

  • Obtain the SSL certificate from the website administrator.  Alternatively, use the browser:
  1. Browse the URL, for example:  https://www.testmachine.com
  2. When the security window popup appears, just click ‘continue’.
  3. The browser has an option to view the certificate.  With Internet Explorer 7, next to the Address Bar there’s a “Certificate Error” button.  Press that and view certificate.  With Firefox, click on the yellow lock at the bottom of the screen.
  4. Go to the Details tab.
  5. Click on “Copy to File”.  In Firefox, click on the “Export” button.
  6. Save the file as “website.cert”
  • Copy the Cert file to where the Java client is going to be executed.
  • Go to the JRE (Java Run Time) library under lib/security, for example: /usr/local/jdk_1.4.3/jre/lib/security/
  • The certs are stored in a file called “cacerts”.
  • Run the keytool app to import the “website.cert” file that was exported earlier from a web browser:

keytool -import -alias websiteAlias -keystore cacerts -file website.cert

  • Enter the default password: changeit
  • Check the content of the new “cacerts” file using:

keytool -list -keystore cacerts

  • Test it.   If it’s a web container (i.e. Tomcat), restart the JVM.

Webapper site has a short Java client test code, and a quick procedure to compile/run a client to test it.

Setting Up Apache Web Server With Secure HTTP

Incorporating the use of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) library is straight forward with Apache web server.  This is the library I always use for all of my Apache web servers installations.  From one robust open source software to another, they’re a perfect fit.  They make deployment quick and easy.  Here’s are the steps for Apache HTTP and OpenSSL:

Compilation

Assuming the OpenSSL installation in /usr/local/ssl, the Apache web server source code compilation will require the configure option:

–enable-ssl –with-ssl=/usr/local/ssl

I use the following:

./configure –prefix=/usr/local/apache2 -enable-ssl –with-ssl=/usr/local/ssl

Then just run:

make install

On Unix platforms like Solaris and Linux, the configure and compilation should work without a hitch.

Configuration

Go to the configuration directory and edit the httpd.conf file (in my example /usr/local/apache2/conf) and uncomment this line:

include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf

Then proceed to the /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra directory and edit the httpd-ssl.conf:

  1. Specify the machine’s IP address to “listen” on port 443.  Specifying an IP address is useful if the machine has multi-homed (multiple IPs configured).
  2. Ensure the Signed SSL Certificate is on this machine.  Store it in /usr/local/apache2/conf/www.website.com.cert pathname.  It can be anywhere that’s accessible from the web server level.
  3. The SSL key for the host needs to be available also, and stored in the same /usr/local/apache2/conf directory.
  4. For the <VirtualHost> tags, edit the _default_ with the IP address, and may look something like this:

<VirtualHost IPAddressNum:443>

ServerName www.website.com

SSLEngine On

SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP:+eNULL

SSLCertificateFile “/usr/local/apache2/conf/www.website.com.cert”
SSLCertificateKeyFile “/usr/local/apache2/conf/www.website.com.key”

<FilesMatch “\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$”>
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</FilesMatch>

<Directory “/usr/local/apache2/cgi-bin”>
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</Directory>

BrowserMatch “.*MSIE.*” \
nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

CustomLog “/usr/local/apache2/logs/ssl_request_log” “%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \”%r\” %b”

</VirtualHost>

References

Further options and settings for SSL are available from the Apache.org site: